Full form of computer: The full form of computer is Common Operated Machine Particularly Used for Technological and Educational Research. Full Form Of Computer is Common Operating Machine Purposely Used for Technological and Educational Research.
What is a computer?
The computer has been derived from the Latin word “computare” that refers to the meaning of calculation. Literally, when defined, a computer is an electronic device that is used for calculation. With the course of the time, the function of the computer was not limited to the calculation only. Therefore the definition has been modified as the time passes by; Computer is an electronic device that is used to carry out arithmetical and logical operations.
The computer can also be defined as the electronic device that is used for storing and processing data. A computer is a machine that is designed to carry out the calculations, operations, and processes as per the instruction provided by the program.
The raw data is provided to the computer as the input by the user and as per the set of instructions, the computer processes the raw data providing the result as the output. The computer also saves the output for future use.
Charles Babbage is known as the “Father of Computer” with his concept and then the invention of the analytical engine. If the digital definition is to be stated; then the computer is the programmable machine that accepts the raw data provided by the user, processes the data as per the set of instruction, produces the output and stores the result.
Classification of computer:
The computer has been classified into different types based on the purpose, data handling, and functionality. According to purpose, computers are classified into general purpose and specific purpose computer. General purpose computer performs various task whereas specific purpose computer performs a specific task.
Similarly, as per data handling, computers are classified into analog, digital and hybrid. Analog computers process analog data and stores in the form of physical quantities. A digital computer is the most commonly used computer that processes the data in discrete form. Hybrid computers are the combination of both analog and digital computer and processes both analog and digital data.
According to size, computers are classified into a supercomputer, mainframe computer, minicomputer, microcomputer, and work stations. Microcomputer or personal computer can be classified as a desktop computer, laptop computer and palmtop computer.
Some definitions of computer
“Computer is a machine that is instructed to carry out the task as per the given set of instruction.”
“Computer is an electronic device that accepts the raw data provided by the user, processes it and gives the result as output.”
As per the dictionary meaning, “Computer is a programmable electronic device designed to accept data, perform prescribed mathematical and logical operations at a high speed and display the results of these operations”.
“Computer is an electronic device that performs arithmetical as well as logical operations.”
“Computer is an electronic device that manipulates the data and information along with storing, retrieving and processing data.”
Importance of computer
The computer has become a crucial part of our daily lives because of its efficiency in performing the task. Every transaction of personal as well as professional transactions is recorded in the computers system because of high accuracy and safety of the data stored. In today’s world, it is almost impossible to imagine an individual’s life without a computer. Some of the points concerning the importance of computer in our daily lives can be enlisted below:
- Computers have been gaining high importance in the field of business. Almost every business transactions are carried out through the computer. Because of its high efficiency, the business field has gained many advantages through the use of the computer. The huge amount of data requires the storage that is facilitated through the use of the computer.
- The computer has also been highly important in the field of science and technology for the complexity in performing the calculation. Various researches are to be made for the inventions to be made along with performing the complex calculations.
- Besides, the computer has brought drastic hype in the communication industry. Because of internet access and networking, the world has become a home. This has brought the word “globalization” into its worth connecting the people from every nook and corner of the world. The evolution of the palmtops and the portable computer has made the world much nearer. This has resulted in the ease of business transactions within different countries too.
- The other importance of computer lies in the entertainment and media industries too. With the aid of computers, the entertainment industry has changed its way of dealing with the graphics. Advancement in computer software with the course of time, computers have provided the variation in the entertainment to the public.
- The computer has also held high importance in the field of medicine. Having a computer in the hospitals had really helped the health professional to maintain the numerous record of the patients in a convenient way. From scanning the bodies of the patient to performing surgeries on the patient’s bodies the computer has brought a revolution in the field of medicine.
- The importance of computer also lies in the field of transportation. The use of GPS tracking has brought a revolt in mapping out the places. Moreover, the core functions of the transport system are controlled through the computer chips and the safety features are also associated with the aid of a computer.
Besides, even in the food business, the computer has aided great assistance. For a growing variety of crops, the growing technological advancement is used.
With the use of computer-aided technology, people have really felt the convenience in their lives. The computer has been a necessity not only for the professionals but also has facilitated the lives of the people. Therefore the importance of computer in our daily lives has been increasing as the days passes by.
Parts of Computer
The basic parts of the computer have always been identified as a monitor, CPU, mouse, and keyboard. Besides, hard drive and RAM has also been identified as the main parts of the computer. The brief description of some of the parts of the computer is given below.
The monitor is the output device of the computer system that displays the result or the output on its screen. The monitor looks like the television screen but the resolution is quite high resolution than television. In basic language, people also refer to the monitor specific as a computer. The other name of the computer is screen, video display, display, video display unit and so on.
Central Processing Unit (CPU):
Central processing unit commonly known as CPU is considered as the “brain” of the computer. This part of the computer mainly focuses on the processing of the raw data that is provided as the input by the user. This part of the computer system is associated with the storage unit that transfers the data from the storage unit to the processing part.
This central processing unit used to refer to the processing unit and the control unit. Central processing Unit is generally involved in performing the arithmetical and logical calculations. Power supply, motherboards are some of the parts of CPU.
The keyboard is the other essential part of the computer system. This is the other basic part as well as the input device through which the communication is made to the desktop or the monitor. This device is found at the periphery of the computer system also known as the peripheral device.
The keyboard looks like the typewriter where the letters, numbers, and symbols are engraved and pressing those keys. Various kinds of keys like alphanumeric keys, numeric keys, command keys, break key, escape key, menu key and several other keys are printed on the keyboard.
The mouse is also one of the peripheral devices that are used to communicate with the computer system. It is also known as the pointing device that is used to point the object displayed on the screen. For the desktop computers, the mouse is placed at the periphery with the wire connected to the computers system.
The balls placed on the top surface of the mouse is generally used to move or drag that can be observed in the screen. The one, two or three buttons placed on the mouse surface is generally used to click the item. The mouse is placed on the mouse pad while in laptops the mouse pad is attached within the system only.
Besides hard drive, memory unit, trackballs, joysticks are also some of the parts of the computer system. The touchpad is the essential part of the laptops that are mostly used in the laptops that brings the touching sensation which is generally displayed on the screen.
Motherboards, power unit, data cables are also part of the computer system. Concluding the parts of the computer system, besides the basic part, scanners, printers, speakers, microphones and web cameras are most essence of the computer system.
History of Computer
Since it is already known that English Mathematics professor named “Charles Babbage” designed the Analytical Engine, the history of modern computer started. But if we move back to the initiation of the device used for complex calculations, the abacus was invented for the complex calculations and arithmetic problems.
This was the time of pre-20th century, however, the computer we generally know today had its beginning in the 19th century when Charles Babbage invented Analytical Engine. Generally, the computer can be classified under the three-generation that covers a certain time period. In each generation, new computers were evolved and also the existing computers were improved.
First generation computer (1950s):
1937 was the year on which the first digital computer name as Atanasoff Berry Computer commonly known as ABC was invented. ABC was invented by Dr. John V. Atanasoff and Clifford Berry. Again in 1943, for the military purpose, the computer named as Colossus was invented. Till 1946, the developments were continued and in 1946, the first substantial computer was invented by John w. Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert.
The name to this first general purpose computer was given as Electrical Numerical Integrator And Calculator (ENIAC) and was built at University of Pennsylvania. This computer has no operating system and has the ability to perform a single task. The weight of the computer was 30 tons and for the processing part, the system had 18000 vacuum tubes.
Second generation computer (the 1950s and 1960s):
The second generation computer did not use vacuum tubes for processing rather used transistors. The use of transistors was more trustworthy. Universal Automatic Computer (UNIVAC 1) was the first-second generation computer that was built for the public for commercial use. Again in 1953, the new computer series brought the revolution in the world with the invention of International Business Machine commonly known as IBM.
IBM 650 and 700 series were developed with the 100 of programming languages. Assembly languages and COBOL were used as the programming language. In this second generation computers, computers had memory storage and operating systems as well. Tape and disk were the storage unit and the printers were also introduced for displaying the output.
Third generation computers (the 1960s and 1970s):
The third generation computer used an integrated circuit (IC) as the processor instead of transistors. The integrated circuits were used instead of transistors because of its enhancing the power of the computer and reduced the cost as well. Because of such invention, the size of the computer was reduced and the reliability was enhanced.
The computer was able to run multiple tasks at the same time. High-level programming languages were used like COBOL, PASCAL, and FORTRON-II in this generation. The computers of this generation used remote processing, time-sharing as the operating system.
Fourth generation computer (the 1970s and 1980s): Programming languages as C, C++ was generally used in the computers of fourth generation computer. The fourth generation computer used very large scale integrated circuits that consist of transistors and other circuit elements.
The generation of this computer was powerful and affordable. Supercomputers as CRAY-1, CRAY-X-MP were some of the computers of this generation.
Fifth generation computer (the 1970s to till) :
very large scale integrated circuits (VLSI) were replaced by Ultra large scale integration (ULSI) circuits in the fifth generation computer. Artificial Intelligence (AI) was used as the software for the fifth generation computer. C, C++, Java were the programming language used in the fifth generation computer. Desktop, laptop, notebook are some of the fifth generation computers that are commonly used by the people.
This was the evolvement of the computers from abacus to the desktops and laptops with the use of sophisticated programming languages.
Function of Computer
As the definition suggests, a computer is an electronic device that processes the raw data and displays the output. Therefore the basic or the core function of the computer are data input, data processing, information output, and data and information storage. The computer operates as per the set of instructions provided by the user and displays the output.
The data is provided by the user through the input devices like a keyboard and mouse. Data input is generally the first function of the computer system. The data entry is made through the input devices and the data is entered manually, automatically or both.
Data input is provided through the device like keyboard, mouse and automatically through the voice recognition software too. The data is entered via the input devices to the excel spreadsheet, database and several other work areas of the computer system. Besides, the automatic data can be entered through automatic devices and robotics equipment as well.
The data processing is the other core functions of the computer system. Processing refers to the conversion of the raw data to the important facts and information. The data processing is generally through the brain of the computer system known as a central processing unit (CPU).
The microprocessor is the device that processes the raw data into the information. Besides microprocessor, dynamic random access memory (DRAM) and static random access memory (SRAM) are the integral components of the data processing. When the data is processed by the microprocessor, the temporary storage is made in DRAM and then the processed data is transferred to the SRAM.
After the processing of the raw data via the brain of the computer or the processing unit, the output device of the computer system displays the result to the users. The useful result is disseminated to the user for their purpose. Processed data can be viewed through a monitor, can be listened and printed as hard copy too. Therefore the processed data can be accessed through screen or monitor, printer, scanner and so on.
Data and information storage:
The other important function of the computer system is the data and information storage. The computer can store the data internally as well as externally. The hard disk drive attached to the part of the computer system, CPU is the primary storage device. Similarly, the external memory can be used as the storage as external drives and an optical disk. With the advancement in technology, the data and information can be stored online in cloud solutions.
Besides, word processing, controlling of the devices and components are also some of the functions of the computer system.
Facts of the computer system
Computers are an important component of the people daily lives. Many interesting facts regarding the computer system have been discovered and some of them are listed below:
- ENIVAC was the first electronic computer that used to weigh more than 27 tons and also used to occupy almost 1800 sq feet.
- TYPEWRITER is the longest word that can be written with the use of the row of the keyboard of the computer system.
- More than 5000 computer viruses are released on every month.
- Only about 10% of the currency of the world is the physical money and 90% currency exists on the computers only.
- Normally a person blinks 20 times per minute but while the person is on the computer he or she blinks only 7 times per minute.
- It is said that more than 80% of the emails sent on a daily basis are spams.
- The brands of computers Apple, HP and Microsoft have one issue in common that they were all started in a garage.
- The most interesting fact about the computer is that the first ever hard drive was made in 1979 and the storage was only about 5 MB.
- Interface manager was the original name given to the windows.
- IBM PC was designed by the team composed of 12 engineers and this team of engineers were known as “The Dirty Dozen”.
- The first mouse of the computer system was made up of wood and Doug Engelbart invented this mouse in the year 1964.
- The first microprocessor was developed for the calculator as 4004 by Intel.
- The first hard drive with the potential to store 1 GB data was invented in 1980. The hard drive had a weight of 550 pounds and the price was $40000.
- The keyboard when invented had the buttons in alphabetical order and this resulted for the high typing speed. Because of high typing speed, the computer used to hang a lot. So to reduce the typing speed of the individual, the alphabetical keys were rearranged in the form of QWERTY.
- The first webcam was used by Cambridge University to observe the coffee maker.
It is already evident through the various researches that the computer has brought the revolution in the lives of the people. Computer system and its networking system via internet access has made the world accessible for the people living in every nook and corners of the world.
The computer has brought convenience in the living way of people. From the field of medicine, education, research to transportation, the computer has its importance marked in several fields. Therefore the computer has its own interesting facts that also reveals a lot about computer and its advantages. With the introduction of intelligence as Artificial Intelligence in the fifth generation computer, the lives of people have been really easy too.