#1 Full form of NASA= National Aeronautics and Space Administration
What does “NASA” mean?
You have probably already heard the term “NASA”, but what does it mean? NASA is the “National Aeronautics and Space Administration”.
What is NASA?
In addition to the stars and planets, one of the first things you think of when you hear the word space is NASA. As a leading aeronautical science and technology organization, NASA oversees all space-related developments and research.
However, many people are not aware of the agency’s other contributions. For example, NASA uses: Satellites and probes: scientists use satellites to collect information on Earth. The probes allow researchers to learn more about the solar system.
Research: astronauts are employed to conduct scientific research while in orbit. Advancements: through research and development, engineers work to improve all aspects of flight. Programs: special exploration programs will eventually send humans to Mars and the Moon. Education offices help teachers prepare for teaching and teaching students.
Students participate in NASA missions to learn more about flights and aeronautics. The agency helps these programs through donations and funds. NASA has made many contributions to the land and humanity that have changed their lives.
An example of life change includes NASA sending the first humans to the moon. Two astronauts, Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin, left on the first manned mission, Apollo 11, on July 20, 1969.
Since NASA was created, the organization has visited numerous planetary bodies within the solar system. These celestial objects include the eight planets. The deployment of robotic space probes allowed scientists to collect information from parts of the galaxy that would otherwise be impossible.
NASA also shares its vast knowledge in the aviation sector. The agency helps with the testing and drafting of many high-end aircraft projects. Several plans designed with the help of NASA have broken existing records. Some of the tests used have even helped flight engineers improve air transport.
NASA does not focus exclusively on the “big picture”. The independent agency also focuses on small-scale projects. Many of the items we use every day have been created or influenced by NASA. Some of these inventions include; Smoke detectors, foam beds and even long distance calls.
Who created NASA?
The person responsible for creating NASA was Dwight D. Eisenhower. During this time, Eisenhower also served as the 34th president of the United States.
How did NASA start?
During the 1950s, the United States and the Soviet Union clashed in space and in aeronautical development. Before NASA there was another group known as the National Aeronautical Advisory Committee. Founded in 1915, NACA supervised all aeronautical research.
The idea of NASA was born in the early fifties. At that time, a race was underway to see which country could successfully launch an artificial satellite in space.
Despite the efforts of the United States, the Soviet Union won. The Congress of the United States perceived the loss as a threat to the country’s technological and security leadership.
As a result, Dwight D. Eisenhower and other government officials agreed and proposed to do something about the situation. The best solution to this problem was the creation of a new federal agency focused on all activities related to non-military space.
In addition, the agency had to rely on NACA. Eisenhower signed the National Law of Aeronautics and Space on July 29, 1958, officially establishing NASA
What year was NASA founded?
Government officials founded NASA in 1958.
Who is the owner of NASA?
The US government owns NASA property.
Who is the head of NASA?
The head of NASA, also known as substitute administrator, is the “face” of the organization. Robert M. Lightfoot Jr. currently serves as head of NASA. Robert Lightfoot was announced as a temporary administrator on January 20, 2017, after working as an associate administrator for five years. Robert M. Lightfoot Jr. was director of the Marshall Space Flight Center before joining the NASA headquarters.
Who runs NASA?
NASA is under the control of the US federal government. The organization represents the country as an independent agency. The leader or “face” of NASA is a place designated by the President of the United States and the United States Senate.
Usually referred to as a NASA administrator, the selected individual acts as the head of communication. The leader is responsible for informing the President and serving as the principal consultant for space science. NASA employs over 18,000 people from different professional backgrounds. The agency also hires independent contractors for specific positions.
Who finances NASA?
You can probably imagine that sending astronauts into space isn’t exactly cheap. Every year NASA spends millions of dollars on academic and scientific research. The federal government of EE. UU. And the Senate is responsible for NASA’s research budget.
NASA also receives money from various external sources; Including donations from individuals and non-profit organizations. The organization also provides funds through patents. However, this income is sent to the treasury. The United States Congress monitors the amount of funds allocated to each NASA program..
How much money does NASA get?
Many often wonder how much money NASA receives each year. In general, for every $ 100 of tax revenue, NASA receives 45 cents. However, the exact amount depends on three factors; The economy, defensive spending and economic conflict. With an economic crisis, high unemployment rates and less money to deliver. These elements influence the income of the federal government generated through taxes.
The last two factors, defensive spending and economic conflict are considered priorities over NASA funding. In other words, the money is taken from the less essential departments at the moment and transferred to other areas.
In 2017, NASA received $ 19.5 billion in funds. The 2018 fiscal budget has estimated $ 19,519 billion for 2018. NASA collects additional funds through donations and third-party organizations.
The process to determine NASA’s annual budget is more complicated than you think. Numerous government officials are involved in the procedure. For beginners, both the president and NASA send budget requests to Congress.
From here, the Senate and the White House create a budget resolution. The resolution determines the amount of funds allocated to specific areas. Finally, an allocation proposal is composed, written and approved.
Where is NASA located?
Although NASA’s headquarters are located in the United States, facilities exist in many other countries. California – Armes Research Center, Armstrong Flight Research Center, Ohio Jet Propulsion Laboratory – John H.
Glenn Research Center Maryland – Goddard Space Flight Center Texas – Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center Florida – John F.
Space Center Kennedy Virginia – Langley Alabama Research Center – George C. Marshall Space Flight Center, Mississippi – John C. Stennis Space Center
Where is the NASA headquarters?
The headquarters of NASA is located in Washington, DC, in Two Independent Square, 300 E Street SW. The head office has a great influence on the day-to-day operations of the organization and acts as a meeting place for superiors. Important decisions are made about the agency’s course here.
The NASA office is responsible for the supervision of all activities. These responsibilities extend to field centres and departments spread across all US locations. It consists of four directories; Space science and technology, aeronautics, human exploration and operations.
When will the next NASA launch be?
The Launch Services Program oversees everything related to the launch and the spacecraft. According to the LSP, NASA has several major interplanetary missions scheduled for 2018. The next NASA launch is scheduled for July 31st.
The deployment of the Solar Parker Probe marks the second interplanetary mission this year. NASA plans to take off the Space Launch Complex 37 probe at CCAFS. NASA intends to send the spacecraft 4 million miles from the sun.
The information gathered by Parker Solar Probe will help scientists learn more about the crown of the star. This mission denotes for the first time in NASA history that the space program has implemented a Delta IV Heavy with a focus on a scientific charge.
When NASA goes to Mars, NASA became interested in the red planet and for good reason. In the last half century, we have learned a lot about Mars. Scientists believe that the planet was once a very different place. In fact, the research suggests that the evolution and formation of Mars is similar to that of Earth.
The use of robotic scouts has allowed scientists to gather vital information about the planet. The most important discovery was the soil samples containing extractable water.
Although the planet is very different today, environmental conditions in the past were adequate to sustain life. At the moment, Mars is habitable. However, the current conditions are not far from the terrestrial ones. The cycles of gravity, temperature, day and night are comparable.
NASA is continually making progress in technology to learn more about Mars and the solar system. Scientists are working to turn a red planet into a comfortable and suitable place for humans.
NASA aims to implement the “independent phase of the Earth” in the 1930s. The phase focuses on human distribution and exploration of the red planet.
How to donate to NASA?
Contribute money to help your fellow astronauts follow a different approach to the “run of the mill” donation process. As NASA is controlled and financed by the government, the rules apply. Federal offices, departments and specific agencies must be authorized to accept donations.
However, there are several alternative methods available to help the program. Postal services – NASA accepts donations directly by mail.
Donors must first complete a form and send it with their contribution. The form guarantees that the donor has no condition related to your donation. In other words, it gives NASA permission to use the money as they wish without “ties”.
NASA accepts help in the form of; Cash, monetary gifts, money orders and checks. University / Research Center – Many universities associated with NASA accept donations. Donating to a university gives you some control over your contribution.
For example, donors can designate funds for a specific laboratory or research department. Non-profit organization: several organizations accept funds on behalf of NASA, such as Penny4NASA.
Staffs in NASA
The head of the agency, the administrator of NASA, is appointed by the President of the United States based on the approval of the United States Senate, informs him and acts as a principal consultant in space sciences.
While space exploration is apparently non-partisan, the person in charge is usually associated with the President’s political party (Democrat or Republican), and a new administrator is usually elected when the Presidency changes party.
Johnson, remained in office while Republican Richard Nixon tried, but failed to get one of his options to accept Paine’s work was confirmed by the Senate in March 1969 and served until September 1970.
The Republican James C. Fletcher, nominated by Nixon and confirmed in April 1971, remained with the Democrat Jimmy Carter until May 1977.
Daniel Goldin was appointed by the Republican George H. Bush and remained throughout the administration of the Democrat Bill Clinton. Robert M.
Lightfoot, Jr., associate administrator of Democrat Barack Obama, was appointed substitute trustee by Republican Donald Trump until Trump’s election, Jim Bridenstine, was confirmed in April 2018. Although the agency independently of be independent, the survival or termination of projects may depend directly on the will of the President.
During his tenure, he collected disparate projects in US space development research. The second administrator, James E. Webb (1961-1968), appointed by President John F. Kennedy, was a democrat who first served publicly under the presidency of President Harry S.
Truman. In order to implement the Apollo program to reach the goal of landing on the Kennedy Moon in the late 1960s, Webb led a profound restructuring of the management and expansion of the facilities, establishing the Houston Crew Vehicle Center (Johnson) and the Florida Launch Operations Center (Kennedy).
Taking advantage of Kennedy’s legacy, President Lyndon Johnson maintained continuity with the Apollo program while keeping Webb when he succeeded Kennedy in November 1963.
But Webb resigned in October 1968 before Apollo achieved his goal, and Republican President Richard M Nixon replaced Webb with Republican Thomas O. Paine.
Organizational structure of NASA.
James Fletcher was responsible for the initial planning of the space shuttle program during his first term as administrator under President Nixon. He was appointed for a second term as administrator from May 1986 to April 1989 by President Ronald Reagan to help the agency recover from the Challenger space shuttle disaster.
Budget of NASA
NASA’s participation in the federal budget total peaked at 4.41% in 1966 during the Apollo program, then rapidly decreased to around 1% in 1975 and remained at that level until 1998.
The percentage then gradually decreased, until it stabilized again at around half a percentage point in 2006 (estimated in 2012 at 0.48% of the federal budget).
In a hearing of the US Senate scientific committee in March 2012, the scientific communicator Neil deGrasse Tyson stated that “Right now, NASA’s annual budget is half a cent in its tax dollar.
After this, a penny for a dollar, we can transform the country from a grumpy, discouraged nation, tired of economic struggle, into one in which it has claimed the 20th century birth right of dreaming of tomorrow “.
Despite this, the public perception of NASA’s budget differs significantly: a 1997 survey indicated that the majority of Americans believed that 20% of the federal budget was destined for NASA.
For the 2015 fiscal year, NASA received an allocation of US $ 18.01 billion from Congress: $ 549 million more than requested and about $ 350 million more than Congress’s 2014 NASA budget .
In the 2016 fiscal year, NASA received $ 19.3 billion. President Donald Trump signed the 2017 NASA transition authorization code, which set the 2017 budget at around $ 19.5.
The exhaust gases produced by rocket propulsion systems, both in the terrestrial atmosphere and in space, can negatively affect the terrestrial environment. Some hypergolic propellants, such as hydrazine, are highly toxic before combustion, but decompose into less toxic compounds after combustion.
Rockets that use hydrocarbon fuels, such as kerosene, release carbon dioxide and soot in their exhaust.However, carbon dioxide emissions are insignificant compared to those from other sources; on average, the United States consumed 802,620,000 gallons of EE.
UU (3,0382 × 109 L) of liquid fuel per day in 2014, while a first stage of Falcon 9 burns approximately 25,000 gallons of EE. UU (95,000 L) of kerosene fuel per launch. Even if a Falcon 9 were launched every day, it would represent only 0.006% of the fuel consumption (and carbon dioxide emissions) for that day.
In addition, the discharge of motors powered by LOx and LH2, such as SSME, is almost completely water. NASA has addressed environmental problems with the constellations program canceled in accordance with the national environmental policy law of 2011.
In contrast, ion engines use innocuous noble gases such as xenon for propulsion.An example of NASA’s environmental efforts is NASA’s sustainability base. In addition, the Exploration Science Building received the LEED Gold award in 2010.
Various space flight programs of NASA
NASA has carried out many manned and unmanned space flight programs throughout its history. The unmanned programs have launched the first American artificial satellites in the earth’s orbit for scientific and communication purposes and have sent scientific probes to explore the planets.
The crewed programs sent the first Americans into the low Earth orbit (LEO), won the space race with the Soviet Union landing twelve men on the moon from 1969 to 1972 in the Apollo program, they developed a semi-LEO space shuttle reusable and developed LEO The capacity of the space station alone and with the cooperation of many other nations, including post-Soviet Russia. Some missions include unmanned aspects, such as the
Galileo spacecraft, which was deployed by astronauts in Earth orbit before being sent unmanned to Jupiter. Manned programs The experimental rocket aircraft programs launched by the NACA were extended by NASA as a support for manned space flight.
This was followed by a program of space capsules for a single man and, in turn, a program of capsules for two men. In 1961, President John F. Kennedy, in response to the loss of national prestige and security fears caused by the first leaders in space exploration of the Soviet Union, proposed the ambitious goal of “landing a man in the moon at the end from the 1960s and brings it safely back to earth.
“This goal was achieved in 1969 by the Apollo program and NASA designed even more ambitious activities that led to a manned mission to Mars. However, the reduction of the perceived threat and the change in political priorities led almost immediately to the termination of most of these plans.
NASA turned its attention to a temporary space laboratory derived from Apollo and a semi-reusable orbital space shuttle. In the 1990s, a grant was approved for NASA to develop a permanent terrestrial orbital space station in collaboration with the international community, which now included the former rival, post-Soviet Russia.
To date, NASA has launched a total of 166 manned space missions on rockets and thirteen X-15 rocket flights over the US Air Force’s definition of space flight altitude. United States, 260,000 feet (80 km).
X-15 missile aircraft (1959-1968)
North America X-15 X-15 in flight with engine The X-15 was a NACA experimental hypersonic research aircraft with rockets, developed in collaboration with US Air Force and the army. The design was characterized by a thin fuselage with sidewalls that contained fuel and early computerized control system. The requests for proposals were issued on December 30, 1954 for the cell and on February 4, 1955 for the rocket motor.
The aircraft contract was awarded to North American Aviation in November 1955, and the XLR30 motor contract was awarded to Reaction Motors in 1956, and three aircraft were built. The X-15 was launched from the wing of one of the two Stratofortresses Boeing B-52 of NASA, tail number NB52A 52-003 and NB52B, tail number 52-008 (known as Balls 8).
The launch took place at a height of approximately 45,000 feet (14 km) and a speed of approximately 500 miles per hour (805 km / h). Twelve pilots were selected for the program by the Air Force, the Navy and NACA (later NASA).
A total of 199 flights were made between 1959 and 1968, which made it the official world record for the fastest speed ever achieved by a manned aircraft equipped (effective as of 2014), and a maximum speed of Mach 6.72, 4.519 miles per hour (7,273 km / h).
Eight pilots received wings from the Air Force astronaut to fly over 260,000 feet (80 km), and two flights by Joseph A. Walker exceeded 100 kilometers (330,000 feet), qualifying as space flights according to the Aeronautical Federation international.
Apollo Program (1961-1972)
Apollo Program. Apollo 11: Buzz Aldrin on the Moon, 1969. The American public’s perception of the Soviet leadership in the space race (putting the first man in space) motivated President John F.
Kennedy to ask Congress on May 25 for 1961 that he would engage the federal government in a program to attract a man. The Moon in the late 1960s, which actually launched the Apollo program. Apollo was one of the most expensive US science programs of all time.
It has cost over $ 20 billion in dollars since the 1960s or an estimated $ 218 billion in current US dollars. (By comparison, the Manhattan Project cost about $ 27.8 billion, which represents inflation).
He used Saturn rockets as launch vehicles, which were much larger than rockets built for previous projects. Even the spacecraft was larger; it had two main parts, the combined command-and-service module (CSM) and the Apollo lunar module (LM).
The LM would be left on the Moon and only the command module (CM) containing the three astronauts would eventually return to Earth. The second human mission, Apollo 8, brought the astronauts for the first time on a flight around the Moon in December 1968.
In the following two missions the mooring manoeuvres required for the landing of the Moon were performed and finally, the landing of the Moon was made in the mission.
Apollo 11 mission in July 1969.
The first person to be on the Moon was Neil Armstrong, who 19 minutes later was followed by Buzz Aldrin, while Michael Collins orbited previously. Five successive Apollo missions also landed astronauts on the moon, the last in December 1972. During these six Apollo space flights, twelve men walked on the moon.
These missions returned a large amount of scientific data and 381.7 kilograms (842 pounds) of lunar samples. Topics covered by the experiments included soil mechanics, meteorites, seismology, heat flow, lunar fields, magnetic fields and solar wind.
The landing of the Moon marked the end of the space race; and as a gesture, Armstrong mentioned humanity when it came down to the moon. Apollo has placed important milestones in human space flight. It is found only by sending manned missions beyond low Earth orbit and landing humans in another celestial body.
The program has stimulated progress in many areas of peripheral technology for manned spaceflight and missiles, including avionics, telecommunications and computers.
Apollo has aroused interest in many fields of engineering and has left many physical structures and machines developed for the program as points of reference. Many objects and artifacts of the program are exhibited in various parts of the world, particularly in the Smithsonian Space and Aeronautical Museums.